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Background: Annexes and References

Annexes

Annex 1: About the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy

The Federal Sustainable Development Strategy (FSDS) sets out our sustainable development priorities, establishes goals and targets, and identifies actions to achieve them. Actions to implement the FSDS will also support the environmentally-focused sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Legislative basis

The Federal Sustainable Development Act (the Act) establishes the requirement to table the FSDS. The Act’s purpose is to provide the legal framework for developing and implementing an FSDS that will make environmental decision making more transparent and accountable to Parliament. The Act requires the Minister of Environment and Climate Change to table a whole-of-government FSDS at least once every 3 years.

An Act to amend the Federal Sustainable Development Act received Royal Assent in February 2019 and will come into force on a future date to be determined by the Governor in Council. Once the amendments are in force, future strategies will be guided by more effective, inclusive, and accountable strategies.

The role of departments and agencies

Environment and Climate Change Canada has a key role in implementing the Act. It houses the Sustainable Development Office (SDO), which is responsible for developing and maintaining systems and procedures to monitor progress on implementation of the FSDS, and for preparing FSDS Progress Reports at least once every 3 years. The SDO also coordinates the development of the strategy.

Because sustainable development goes beyond the environment, it cuts across many departmental and agency mandates. The Act reflects this, requiring agencies named in its schedule and departments named in Schedule I to the Financial Administration Act to prepare sustainable development strategies that comply with and contribute to the FSDS.

The role of departments and agencies also includes:

  • working collaboratively with Environment and Climate Change Canada to develop the FSDS
  • integrating environmental and sustainable development considerations into policy, plan and program development through strategic environmental assessments
  • preparing sustainable development strategies containing objectives and plans within their mandate that contribute to the FSDS

The role of public consultation

Public consultation is an important part of FSDS development under the Act. Each draft FSDS must undergo a public consultation period of at least 120 days before it is finalized. As part of public consultation, the Minister of Environment and Climate Change provides the draft FSDS to:

  • the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development
  • the Sustainable Development Advisory Council (a multi-stakeholder advisory body consisting of at least 1 representative from each province and territory and 3 from each of the following: Indigenous peoples, environmental non-governmental organizations, business organizations, and organizations representative of labour)
  • the appropriate committee of each House of Parliament
  • the public

Consultation results inform the final Strategy and are summarized in a publicly-available synthesis report

The structure of the FSDS

The 2019–2022 FSDS is organized around 13 aspirational goals that are a Canadian reflection of the SDGs (See Annex 3 – Canada in the World), acknowledging our unique responsibilities and circumstances:

  • Effective action on climate change – A low-carbon economy contributes to limiting global average temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius and supports efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius
  • Greening government – The Government of Canada will transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient, and green operations
  • Clean growth – A growing clean technology industry in Canada contributes to clean growth and the transition to a low-carbon economy
  • Modern and resilient infrastructure – Modern, sustainable, and resilient infrastructure supports clean economic growth and social inclusion
  • Clean energy – All Canadians have access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy
  • Healthy coasts and oceans – Coasts and oceans support healthy, resilient and productive ecosystems
  • Pristine lakes and rivers – Clean and healthy lakes and rivers support economic prosperity and the well-being of Canadians
  • Sustainably managed lands and forests – Lands and forests support biodiversity and provide a variety of ecosystem services for generations to come
  • Healthy wildlife populations – All species have healthy and viable populations
  • Clean drinking water – All Canadians have access to safe drinking water and, in particular, the significant challenges Indigenous communities face are addressed
  • Sustainable food – Innovation and ingenuity contribute to a world-leading agricultural sector and food economy for the benefit of all Canadians
  • Connecting Canadians with nature – Canadians are informed about the value of nature, experience nature first hand, and actively engage in its stewardship
  • Safe and healthy communities – All Canadians live in clean, sustainable communities that contribute to their health and well-being

FSDS goals:

  • are aspirational
  • take a long-term view
  • address important challenges and problems
  • remain attuned to environmental information, data and indicators
  • encourage flexibility in the choice of strategies for achievement
  • reflect domestic and international priorities and commitments

One or more targets contribute to each goal. To the extent possible, targets are intended to:

  • be measurable, meaning that it should be clear how progress will be measured, and targets should be supported by indicators that accurately represent what is being measured and that allow for comparison over time
  • be time-bound, meaning that they should include clear time frames and specify what is required by when
  • take a medium-term view, meaning 3 to 5 years
  • fall within federal jurisdiction and departmental mandates
  • be consistent with Government of Canada priorities
  • reflect the principles set out in the Federal Sustainable Development Act

Short-term milestones complement FSDS targets. They represent interim steps that will help ensure we stay on track to achieve our longer-term objectives. In general, short-term milestones should be achievable within one 3-year FSDS cycle.

Action plans, which constitute implementation strategies as required by the Act, set out what we will do to achieve our medium-term targets and aspirational goals. They include priority measures, as well as other actions that support the goals and targets. Action plans should:

  • be clear, meaning they should be written in plain language, well-defined and understandable
  • be relevant, meaning they should have a clear connection to one or more targets or to a goal
  • reflect actions the Government of Canada is taking or plans to take during the 3-year FSDS cycle (recognizing that actions may cover part of the 3-year cycle or may extend beyond it)

Action plans as set out in the FSDS are complemented by specific commitments set out in departmental sustainable development strategies. Departmental strategies, which must be tabled within one year of the FSDS, will include actions and performance measures that contribute to FSDS action plans.

While provinces and territories, Indigenous peoples, businesses, the scientific community, non-governmental organizations and Canadian citizens contribute to achieving environmental outcomes and achieving the SDGs of the 2030 Agenda, only federal actions are included in FSDS action plans.

Annex 2: Performance measurement

Performance measurement is an essential part of our sustainable development approach. We track and report on sustainable development actions and results through:

  • Federal Sustainable Development Strategy (FSDS) progress reports
  • reporting on departmental sustainable development strategies (DSDSs)
  • the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators (CESI)

FSDS progress reports

The Federal Sustainable Development Act requires us to prepare an FSDS progress report at least once every 3 years. Progress reports will let you know how we are implementing the FSDS and how quickly we are making progress toward its goals and targets. Beginning with the 2018 Progress Report, we use a simple dashboard approach to ensure that our reports are clear and accessible.

While FSDS progress reports provide important information on environmental outcomes, it is important to note that responsibility for the environment is shared, and that we support environmental sustainability within the constraints of our jurisdiction and authorities. As a result, it can be difficult to directly link federal actions to environmental outcomes.

Departmental sustainable development strategies

DSDSs provide detailed information on what departments and agencies are doing to help meet the aspirational goals through the targets and milestones set out in the FSDS. Over the next 3 years, taking into account your comments and ideas, participating departments and agencies will develop DSDSs that comply with and contribute to the FSDS.

DSDSs are linked with core departmental planning and reporting processes, and include:

  • the department’s sustainable development vision
  • specific departmental sustainability commitments and actions
  • performance indicators that show how departments are meeting their commitments
  • information on departmental decision making and sustainable development practices, including implementation of strategic environmental assessments

Departments and agencies bound by the Act contribute differently to FSDS goals and targets depending on their mandate; however, all are responsible for contributing to our goal of greening government.

Indicators

The indicators we will use to measure and report on our progress are largely drawn from the CESI program. The program selects indicators using the following criteria:

  • policy relevance (represents the FSDS goals and targets)
  • utility (meets the needs of decision makers and the public)
  • soundness (provides consistent and solid methodology; comparable over time)
  • data availability and integrity (uses existing high-quality data with adequate coverage)

The CESI program produces indicators with the support of programs within Environment and Climate Change Canada and other federal departments and agencies, including Health Canada, Statistics Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Parks Canada, Transport Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada, as well as provincial and territorial governments.

A wide range of indicators beyond those found in support of the FSDS is available through the CESI website. Table 2 sets out the CESI indicators that will be used to track progress on the 2019–2022 FSDS, along with FSDS indicators from other sources.

Table 2 – Indicators for measuring progress on the 2019 to 2022 FSDS

Effective action on climate change

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions

Every year

CESI

Zero-emission vehicles

Percentage of new light-duty vehicles sales that are made up of zero-emission vehicles

Every year

Transport Canada

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Greenhouse gas intensity

Every year

CESI

Greenhouse gas emissions by economic sector

Every year

CESI

Progress towards Canada's greenhouse gas emissions reduction target

Every year

CESI

Temperature change

Every year

CESI

Snow cover

Every 2 years

CESI

Arctic sea ice

Every 2 years

CESI

Adaptation on climate change survey

Every 5 years

Natural Resources Canada

Greening Government

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Greenhouse gas emissions reductions from federal buildings and fleets

Percentage change in energy related greenhouse gas emissions from facilities and fleets relative to fiscal year 2005–2006

Every year

Centre for Greening Government (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat)

Real property and fleet

Percentage of non-hazardous operational waste diverted from landfill

Every year

Centre for Greening Government (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat)

Real property and fleet

Percentage of plastic waste diverted from landfill

Every year

Centre for Greening Government (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat)

Real property and fleet

Percentage of construction, renovation and demolition waste diverted from landfill

Every year

Centre for Greening Government (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat)

Real property and fleet

Percentage of the federal administrative fleet comprised of zero-emission vehicles

Every year

Centre for Greening Government (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat)

Adaptation to climate change

Percentage of departments that have developed measures to reduce climate change risks to assets, services and operations identified through departmental climate change risk assessment processes

Every year

Centre for Greening Government (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat)

Procurement

Percentage of purchased electricity from clean generation sources

Every year

Centre for Greening Government (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat)

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Progress towards Canada's greenhouse gas emissions reduction target

Every year

CESI

Solid waste diversion and disposal

Every year

CESI

Clean Growth

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Federal investment in clean energy research, development and demonstration

Clean energy investment tracking

TBC

Natural Resources Canada

Clean technology exports

Value of clean technology exports

Every year

Statistics Canada

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Clean tech sector jobs

Every year

Statistics Canada

Clean tech sector gross domestic product

Every year

Statistics Canada

Modern and Resilient I nfrastructure

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

By the end of the 2027-2028 fiscal year, invest $26.9 billion in funding for green infrastructure initiatives that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve climate resilience and environment

100% of funding available for projects under the green infrastructure stream of the Investing in Canada plan has been allocated to projects

Note: We have allocated $26.9 billion under the green infrastructure stream of the Investing in Canada plan, a horizontal initiative delivered by 14 federal departments and agencies. A portion of the $26.9 billion allocation will be used for administrative, operations and maintenance, and other program costs.

N/A

Infrastructure Canada

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Value of green infrastructure projects approved under the Investing in Canada plan (federal share)

Every year

Infrastructure Canada

Percentage of municipalities that have integrated consideration of climate change impacts into their asset management planning and practices (Core Public Infrastructure Survey)

Every 2 years

Infrastructure Canada

Percentage of communities across Canada with sustained boil water advisories per year (Core Public Infrastructure Survey)

Every 2 years

Infrastructure Canada

Percentage of wastewater systems that are high, medium and low risk based on federal wastewater systems effluent regulations (Core Public Infrastructure Survey)

Every 2 years

Infrastructure Canada

Percentage of municipalities who practice asset management (Core Public Infrastructure Survey)

Every 2 years

Infrastructure Canada

Percentage of municipalities that strengthened their asset management practices as a result of federal funding through Infrastructure Canada

N/A

Infrastructure Canada

Percentage of municipalities that built or enhanced their capacity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change as a result of federal funding through Infrastructure Canada

N/A

Infrastructure Canada

Number of structural and/or natural assets with improved structural capacity to adapt to climate change, disaster, weather, etc.

N/A

Infrastructure Canada

Clean Energy

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Clean power generation

Electricity generation from renewable sources

Every year

Natural Resources Canada

Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency

Every year

Natural Resources Canada

Healthy Coasts and Oceans

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Marine conservation

Canada's conserved areas (marine)

Every year

CESI

Sustainable fisheries

Sustainable fish harvest

Every year

CESI

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Shellfish harvest area quality

Every 2 years

CESI

Eelgrass sites and trends

Every 3 years

CESI

Status of major fish stocks

Every year

CESI

Marine pollution spills

Every 3 years

CESI

Monitoring disposal at sea

Every 3 years

CESI

Pristine Lakes and Rivers

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Lake Erie

Phosphorus loading in Lake Erie

Every year

CESI

Lake Winnipeg Basin

Nutrients in Lake Winnipeg

Every year for loading, every 2 years for levels

CESI

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Phosphorus levels in the offshore waters of the Great Lakes

Every 3 years

CESI

Nutrients in the St. Lawrence River

Every 2 years

CESI

Restoring the Great Lakes Areas of Concern

Every year

CESI

Water quality in Canadian rivers

Every year

CESI

Water quantity in Canadian rivers

Every 2 years

CESI

Metal mining effluent quality

Every year

CESI

Pulp and paper effluent quality

Every year

CESI

Sustainably managed lands and forests

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Terrestrial ecosystem conservation

Canada's conserved areas (terrestrial)

Every year

CESI

Health of national parks

Ecological integrity of national parks

Every year

CESI

Sustainable forests

Sustainability of timber harvest

Every year

CESI

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Amount of Canadian forests; deforestation

Every year

Natural Resources Canada

Forest regeneration

Every year

Natural Resources Canada

Land use change

Every 3 years

CESI

Extent of Canada’s wetlands

Every 4 years

CESI

Healthy wildlife populations

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Species at risk (protection and recovery)

Species at risk population trends

Every year

CESI

Status of wild species

Every 5 years

CESI

Migratory birds

Population status of Canada's migratory birds

Every 3 years

CESI

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Changes in the status of wildlife species at risk

Every year

CESI

Clean drinking water

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Long-term drinking water advisories

Number of long-term drinking water advisories affecting First Nations drinking water systems

Every 3 years

CESI

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Drinking water advisories in Canada

Every 2 years

CESI

Sustainable Food

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Sustainable agriculture

Index of Agri-Environmental Sustainability

Every 5 years

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Sustainable aquaculture

Management of Canadian aquaculture

Every year

CESI

Agri-food exports

Percentage change of agri-food products sold

Every year

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Environmental farm planning on agricultural land

Every year

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Wildlife habitat capacity on agricultural land

Every 2 years

CESI

Rates of diet-related chronic diseases in Canada

Every year

Statistics Canada

Obesity rate in Canada

Every year

Statistics Canada

Connecting Canadians with nature

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Visitation to parks and participation in biodiversity conservation activities

Number of visits at Parks Canada natural heritage places

Every year

Parks Canada

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Trends in percentage of Canadians who report that they visited parks or public greenspaces

Every 2 years

Statistics Canada

Number of visits to selected national wildlife areas

Every year

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Percentage of Canadians who report that they take definite action to protect the environment

Every 2 years

Statistics Canada

Safe and healthy communities

Target Title

Measures of progress toward the target

Update cycle

Source

Air quality

Population exposure to outdoor air pollution

Every year

CESI

Chemicals Management Plan

Percentage of substances that are found to be toxic to the environment that have controls in place in a timely manner.

Every year

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Percentage of actions taken in a timely manner to protect the health of Canadians from substances found to be a risk to human health

Every year

Health Canada

Air pollutant emissions

Air pollutant emissions

Every year

CESI

Complementary contextual indicators supporting the goal

Update Cycle

Source

Air Health Trend Indicator

Every 3 years

CESI

Air quality

Every year

CESI

Human exposure to harmful substances

Every 3 years

CESI

PBDE in fish and sediment

Every 3 years

CESI

PFOS in fish and water

Every 3 years

CESI

Release of harmful substances to water

Every year

CESI

Emissions of harmful substances to air

Every year

CESI

Annex 3: Canada in the world

Canada is not alone in taking action to protect the environment and improve our quality of life—sustainable development is a priority around the world. In addition to advancing our domestic priorities, the FSDS goals, targets and actions support the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as other international agreements and initiatives.

Support for the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda

Our 13 FSDS goals are a reflection of the SDGs, with a focus on their environmental dimensions. Table 3 shows alignment between our strategy and the global SDGs, including direct linkages between FSDS and SDG targets.

Table 3 – Alignment between FSDS goals and the SDGs

FSDS goals and targets

Relevant SDGs and SDG targets

Effective action on climate change

SDG 3: Good Health and Well-Being

SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

SDG 13: Climate Action

SDG 14: Life Below Water

SDG 15: Life on Land

SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals

By 2030, reduce Canada's total greenhouse gas emissions by 30%, relative to 2005 emission levels

9.4 - By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

Zero-emission vehicles will represent 10% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2025, 30% by 2030 and 100% by 2040

9.4 - By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

Greening government

SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

SDG 13: Climate Action

Reduce greenhouse gas emissions from federal government facilities and fleets by 40% by 2030 (with an aspiration to achieve this target by 2025) and 80% below 2005 levels by 2050 (with an aspiration to be carbon neutral)

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

Our administrative fleet will be comprised of at least 80% zero-emission vehicles by 2030

11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

Divert at least 75% (by weight) of non-hazardous operational waste from landfills by 2030

12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

Divert at least 75% (by weight) of plastic waste from landfills by 2030

12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

Divert at least 90% (by weight) of all construction and demolition waste from landfills and strive to achieve 100% by 2030)

12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

By 2030, 75% of domestic office lease transactions must be carbon neutral in situations where the federal government represents 75% or greater of the occupied space (m2), market conditions permit and a competitive environment exists

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

By 2022, departments have developed measures to reduce climate change risks to assets, services and operations

11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

Use 100% clean electricity by 2025

By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

Clean growth

SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

SDG 13: Climate Action

SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals

Implement our Mission Innovation pledge to double federal government investments in clean energy research, development and demonstration from 2015 levels of $387 million to $775 million in 2020

9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending

Increase the value of Canada’s clean technology exports to $15.6 billion by 2025

9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending

Modern and resilient infrastructure

SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

SDG 13: Climate Action

By the end of the 2027 to 2028 fiscal year, invest $26.9 billion in funding for green infrastructure initiatives that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve climate resilience and environment quality

9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

Clean energy

SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

By 2030, 90% and in the long term, 100% of Canada's electricity is generated from renewable and non-emitting sources

7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix

By 2030, 600 petajoules of total annual energy savings will be achieved as a result of adoption of energy efficiency codes, standards and practices from a baseline savings of 27.4 petajoules in 2017–2018

7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency

Healthy coasts and oceans

SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

SDG 14: Life Below Water

SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals

By 2020, 10% of coastal and marine areas are conserved through networks of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures

14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information

By 2020, all major fish and invertebrate stocks are managed and harvested at levels considered to be sustainable, from a baseline of 96% harvested within established ecosystem limits in 2016

14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics

Pristine lakes and rivers

SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

SDG 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

SDG 14: Life Below Water

SDG 15: Life on Land

SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals

Achieve and maintain a 40% reduction in annual phosphorus loading into Lake Erie from a 2008 baseline to achieve the binational (Canada-US) phosphorus targets

6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally

By 2022, reduce nutrient loadings in the Lake Winnipeg Basin by an estimated 44 700 kilograms per year in support of Manitoba’s plan to reduce phosphorus in Lake Winnipeg by 50% to pre-1990 levels

6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally

Sustainably managed lands and forests

SDG 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

SDG 15: Life on Land

By 2020, at least 17% of terrestrial areas and inland water are conserved through networks of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures

15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

By March 31 2023, ecological integrity will be maintained or improved in 92% of national park ecosystems

15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

Between now and 2022, maintain Canada’s annual timber harvest at or below sustainable wood supply levels

15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

Healthy wildlife populations

SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

SDG 14: Life Below Water

SDG 15: Life on Land

By 2020, populations of species at risk listed under federal law exhibit trends that are consistent with recovery strategies and management plans

15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

By 2025, increase the percentage of migratory bird species whose populations sizes fall within an acceptable range—neither too low nor too high—from a baseline of 57% in 2013

15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

Clean drinking water

SDG 3: Good health and Well-Being

SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

By 2021, all of the long-term drinking water advisories on public systems on reserve are to be resolved

6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all

6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

6.B Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management

Sustainable food

SDG 2: Zero Hunger

SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

SDG 14: Life Below Water

SDG 15: Life on Land

By 2030, support improvement in the environmental performance of the agriculture sector by achieving score of 71 or higher for the Index of Agri-Environmental Sustainability (reflecting the quality of water, soil, air and biodiversity)

2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality

Achieve 90% compliance with Fisheries Act regulations related to aquaculture

2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality

Grow Canada’s agri-food exports to $75 billion per year by 2025

2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality

Connecting Canadians with nature

SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

By 2020, maintain or increase the number of Canadians that get out into nature—for example, by visiting parks and green spaces—and increase participation in biodiversity conservation activities relative to a 2010 baseline

11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities

12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

Safe and healthy communities

SDG 2: Zero Hunger

SDG 3: Good Health and Well-Being

SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

SDG 13: Climate Action

SDG 15: Life on Land

Increase the percentage of Canadians living in areas where air quality standards are achieved from 70% in 2015 to 85% in 2030

3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination

11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

Continued decrease in emissions from 1990 of fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and volatile organic compounds from all sources

3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination

11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

From 2019 to 2022, take risk management actions in a timely manner for 100% of substances found to be a risk to the environment or human health

3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination

1.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

Other international agreements and initiatives supported by FSDS goals, targets and actions

Effective action on climate change

Greening government

Clean growth

Modern and resilient infrastructure

Clean energy

Healthy coasts and oceans

Pristine lakes and rivers

Sustainably managed lands and forests

Healthy wildlife populations

Initiatives under:

Clean drinking water

Sustainable food

Connecting Canadians with nature

Safe and healthy communities

Annex 4: List of departments and agencies

The following departments and agencies are required to table sustainable development strategies under the Federal Sustainable Development Act :

  • Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
  • Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency
  • Canada Border Services Agency
  • Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions
  • Canada Revenue Agency
  • Canadian Heritage
  • Department of Finance Canada
  • Department of Justice Canada
  • Employment and Social Development Canada
  • Environment and Climate Change Canada
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
  • Global Affairs Canada
  • Health Canada
  • Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
  • Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (Indigenous Services Canada and Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada)
  • Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada
  • National Defence
  • Natural Resources Canada
  • Parks Canada
  • Public Health Agency of Canada
  • Public Safety Canada
  • Public Services and Procurement Canada
  • Transport Canada
  • Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat
  • Veterans Affairs Canada
  • Western Economic Diversification Canada

While not bound by the act, the following organizations have contributed to the 2019–2022 Federal Sustainable Development Strategy:

  • Canadian Coast Guard*
  • Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research
  • Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency
  • Correctional Service Canada
  • Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario
  • Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario
  • Infrastructure Canada
  • Jacques Cartier and Champlain Bridges Incorporated
  • National Capital Commission
  • National Research Council Canada
  • Royal Canadian Mounted Police
  • Standards Council of Canada
  • Statistics Canada
  • Sustainable Development Technology Canada

* The Canadian Coast Guard is included as part of Fisheries and Oceans Canada throughout the strategy.

References

Glossary of terms

Adaptation: Adjusting our decisions, activities, and thinking because of observed or expected changes in climate, in order to reduce harm or take advantage of new opportunities

Biodiversity: The variability among living organisms from all sources including, among others, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems

Clean energy: Renewable and non-emitting (such as nuclear) energy sources, and carbon capture and storage technologies, as well as the reduction of energy usage through energy efficiency.

Clean technology: Any process, product, or service that reduces environmental impacts (Statistics Canada)

Country/traditional food: Terms used in Canada to refer to foods gathered, hunted and fished by Indigenous peoples, especially in the Northern regions

Ecological integrity: A condition in which the natural components of an ecosystem—including physical elements, diversity of species and habitats, and ecological processes—are likely to persist

Ecosystem: An ecological community together with its environment, functioning as a unit

Ecosystem services: Services which humans derive from ecological functions such as photosynthesis, oxygen production, and water purification

Embodied carbon: As used in the Greening Government Strategy, embodied carbon refers to carbon dioxide emitted during the manufacture, transport and construction of building materials, together with end-of-life emissions

Food security: A condition in which all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life

Green infrastructure: Infrastructure that protects communities and supports Canada’s ongoing transition to a clean growth economy

Light-duty vehicle: For the purpose of greening government, light-duty vehicle means passenger cars, vans and light trucks consistent with Parts II and III of the Government Motor Vehicle Ordering Guide published by Public Services and Procurement Canada

Protected area: A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values (IUCN, 2016)

Renewable energy: Energy obtained from natural resources that can be naturally replenished or renewed within a human lifespan

Resilience: The ability of a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways of functioning, the capacity of self organization, and the capacity to adapt to stress and change (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014)

Stewardship: Management of resources in such a way that they can be passed on with integrity to future generations

Sustainable development: Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

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Related links